An Engagement Based on the Jutland Operations

In order to test recent AI code changes, a large engagement was created using forces generally available on May 31st, 1916. Several changes were made to the Battle of Jutland orders of battle to give more balanced forces:

  1. The older British 12 inch gunned battleships and German pre-dreadnought battleships were omitted.
  2. The 3rd Battle Cruiser Squadron (Invincible class) and British armoured cruisers were omitted.
  3. Two ships not available historically were added: Queen Elisabeth, Australia.
  4. British battleships were organized into 5 ship divisions.
  5. The 3rd Light Cruiser Squadron and the light cruisers attached to the battle squadrons were omitted.

In order to insure a clash between the majority of the forces on each side and to give sufficient daylight for the action, the movements of the fleets prior to the clash were modified:

  1. The British rendezvous between the battle fleet and the battle cruisers was moved to the south-west and occurred earlier in the day.
  2. The German operational plan to have the battle cruisers demonstrate off the Norwegian coast and the Skagerrak was followed, but earlier in the day.

As a result, the German fleet was returning south and the British fleet was heading north-east on an intercept course. The scenario starts at 15:00 hours.

The British fleet is in a cruising formation based in principle on the Grand Fleet Battle Orders (GFBO). The 1st , 2nd and 3rd battleship divisions are disposed abeam, the battle cruisers are stationed 20 NM ahead and the 5th Battle Squadron (4th Division in the scenario) are stationed 10 NM ahead (see GFBO, page 32, Dec 1915, Cruising Dispositions Battle Cruiser Fleet Present, V. Day Normal Visibility).

The German fleet is in a single line ahead, with the battle cruisers stationed 10 NM ahead.

The orders of battle are listed in the narrative file:


Plot from 15:51 to 16:25 hours
Opposing light cruisers open fire and continue to close until British cruisers identify the German battle cruisers at 16:04.
16:05 – the British battle cruisers deploy to starboard to close. German cruisers identify the British battle cruisers at 16:11.
16:17 – British light cruisers identify the leading ships of the German battle line and at 16:20 the British battle fleet deploys into a single line ahead to follow the battle cruisers. The British light cruiser screen is recalled to take stations protecting the battle fleet.
16:25 – The opposing battle cruisers begin exchanging fire.


Plot from 16:25 to 17:10 hours
Two plots for this and following periods are shown. The simplified versions showing only the lead ships of the battleship and battle cruiser units will be easier to follow in some cases.
16:30 – German Flotilla VI launches torpedoes toward Lion. The turn to the south of Lion and the following battle cruisers at 16:32 conveniently places them on a parallel course to the German battle cruisers and allows the engagement to continue at a reasonable range. However, the Germans have the downwind position.
16:55 – Three German Flotillas are ordered to attack the head of the British battle cruisers and can be seen turning westward to get to launch positions.
16:59 – Flotilla VI launches torpedoes toward Lion.
17:04 – German cruisers sight the British ‘fast wing’ battleships of the Queen Elizabeth class.
17:05 – The German battleships deploy, technically to port based on the bearing to the sighted battleships, but it is only a 10 degree starboard course change since they are already in line ahead. The German light cruiser screen is recalled to take stations protecting the battle fleet.
17:07 – British battle cruisers turn to the west to avoid torpedoes from Flotilla VI.


Plot from 17:10 to 17:50 hours
17:17 – Flotilla IX launches torpedoes toward New Zealand.
17:19 – Flotilla VI launches torpedoes toward Lion.
17:21 – British 4th Division (Queen Elizabeth class) opens fire on the lead German battleships. The radical course changes by the 4th Division during this period result from trying to keep station 10 NM ahead of the main battleline, which is itself maneuvering.
17:23 to 17:24 – British battle cruisers turn away from torpedoes.
17:25 – British and German battle cruisers are recalled to join their respective battle fleets. Lion’s intercept course to her station ahead of the British battleline takes her toward the approaching German battle fleet.
17:41 to 17:50 – The lead ships of the British battleline (Iron Duke, etc.) open fire on the German battleships.


Plot from 17:50 to 18:40 hours
18:05 to 18:10 – The German fleet reverses course to the northward (toward the British fleet), with the battle cruisers taking station ahead.


Plot from 18:40 to 19:25 hours
18:40 – Six British flotillas are ordered to make torpedo attacks on the German battleline.
18:46 – 4th Flotilla launches torpedoes toward Konig.
18:50 – The German battle divisions turn northeastward together toward the torpedo launch.
18:53 – 1st Flotilla launches torpedoes toward Posen.
18:54 – 11th Flotilla launches torpedoes toward Konig.
18:56 to 19:01 – German ships maneuver to avoid multiple torpedo attacks. These maneuvers result in closing with the British battle fleet, ultimately to point blank fire and collision avoidance ranges.


Plot of the entire battle:


Status at the end of the game:


Code AI algorithm problems:

  1. The movements of the ‘fast wing’ unit (historically the British 5th Battle Squadron) are not satisfactory. The unit needs to support the battle cruisers while avoiding action alone against the entire opposing battleline. Taking station ahead of a friendly battleline which changes course results in radical movements of the station location.
  2. Torpedo avoidance maneuvers need to consider the range to the enemy to prevent closing to suicidal ranges.
  3. Courses chosen to take assigned stations should avoid close approaches to more powerful enemy forces.

Scarborough Raid, December 1914

In December of 1914, the High Sea Fleet (HSF) sortied in support of a bombardment of the English coast by the 1st Scouting Group. Alerted by Room 40, the Admiralty ordered the 2nd Battle Squadron, the 3rd Cruiser Squadron, the 1st Light Cruiser Squadron and the Battle Cruiser Squadron to trap what they thought was a raid by the 1st Scouting Group alone. Bad weather, along with tactical choices and signaling errors prevented a major clash. See, for example, References 1 and 2.

This scenario uses an assumption of better weather to examine a potential engagement between the British force and the HSF near dawn on December 16th. Potential encounters which might have occurred if the High Sea Fleet had not turned back during the night are ignored. The 1st Scouting Group is near the coast at dawn and too distant to be involved. The battle is between Warrender (with Beatty under his command) and Ingenohl. For this date and latitude, nautical twilight begins at 0659 hrs (GMT) and sunrise is at 0825 hrs.

The orders of battle are listed in the narrative file:

Approach to contact and deployment (0825-0900 hrs)

The initial cruising formations are taken from Reference 3, Charts 5 and 7. The HSF has turned south after reaching its rendezvous position (labeled as “700 Uhr-Punkt” on Reference 3, Chart 8). The British force has reversed course to the north after passing the cleared minefield lane leading west toward the coast.

When the armored cruisers in the screen of the HSF (Roon and Prinz Heinrich) are sighted, the British force deploys to starboard (0825 hrs). The withdrawal of the British light cruiser squadron to its battle position prevents it from sighting more of the enemy, and it is left to Beatty to report the leading ships of the HSF battle line 23 minutes later (0848 hrs). The (historical) British night cruising formation had the armored and light cruisers in compact columns and not spread out in a search screen. It may have been doctrine to do this only after sunrise. In the actual action, the light cruisers were spread out by 0900 hrs and the armored cruisers by about 1200 hrs (Reference 3, Chart 11, times adjusted to GMT).

The HSF deploys to port at 0835 hrs, based on sighting the British battle cruisers, now about 4 NM ahead of the British battleships. The battleships are not sighted until 0852 hrs (and not engaged until 0903 hrs), so the HSF maneuvers in this phase are based mainly on engaging the battle cruisers.

Main action and disengagement (0900 – 0940 hrs)

Only battleships and battle cruisers are plotted in this phase for clarity.

Heavy damage to the Lion forces her to turn away at 0902 hrs, but it is too late, and she sinks at 0903 hrs. Tiger is also heavily damaged, but leads the remaining battle cruisers to the NE until her reduced speed causes Queen Mary to take the lead . Since the loss of the Lion is clearly visible to Warrender in the King George V, and since the entire HSF is now known to be present, control of the British side by the AI code was stopped and a withdrawal southward was ordered at 0905 hrs. The AI code does not yet have algorithms to decide on a general withdrawal. All units were ordered to make funnel smoke.

The HSF battle line attempts to maintain the current range by reversing course, but not realizing that the enemy is in flight, makes the turn to starboard, i.e., away from the action. It is not until 0920 hrs that the HSF turns to the SE. This allows the British to get out of range. The British are slightly faster and most would have escaped in any case, but an earlier turn to the south by the HSF might have destroyed the Tiger, then only capable of 18 knots.

Plot of the entire battle:

Tiger, Queen Mary and New Zealand pass the sinking Lion (game time 0905 GMT).
(4×4 inch acrylic on wood)

Status at the end of the game:

This (admittedly contrived) scenario shows the difficulty of destroying Warrender’s outnumbered force with a HSF consisting largely of slower heavy ships. The advance of the Battle Cruiser Squadron several miles ahead of the 2nd Battle Squadron, while it resulted in the loss of the Lion, allowed the battleships to escape before being significantly damaged.

References:
1. Goldrick, James, “Before Jutland,” Chapter 12.
2. Marder, Arthur J., “From the Dreadnought to Scapa Flow,” Volume II, Chapter VII.
3. Groos, D. “Der Krieg in der Nordsee,” Volume III, Charts 5 – 8 and 11.

1905 Battle of Singapore

This scenario is a fictional battle where the British attempt to stop the 2nd Pacific Squadron from reaching its destination in 1905. The idea for the game came from this blog post with a memo by the Director of Naval Intelligence, Prince Louis of Battenberg, which includes the proposed British force to be assembled at Singapore:
https://simonharley.com/2022/03/01/prevent-the-russian-baltic-fleet-from-reaching-the-far-east/
Since the memo’s proposed location for the battle (west and south-west of the Straits of Sunda) assumed that the 2nd Pacific Squadron would not go through the Straits of Malacca as it did, the location has been moved to the open water between Singapore and the Island of Borneo.

With the exception of the 4 “Duncans” from Mediterranean, the memo does not list specific ships. The order of battle for the game attempts to reconcile the memo with the fleet deployments listed here:
http://www.naval-history.net/xGW-RNOrganisation1900-14.htm?fbclid=IwAR2ESrVd8GGc80XW1-i7shHVBNvEBki_-zpPa3vnVBVmbFRCZA-kJv2Tk4w
The two ‘PARTIALLY-ARMOURED CRUISERS’ from the China station are taken to be the protected cruisers of the Powerful class, although they may have been the Amphitrite and Argonaut of the Diadem class. The latter class is not yet included in the game code. The British third class cruisers are not included.

The code AI ran both side’s forces.

The sea conditions and orders of battle are listed on Page 1 of the Narrative file:


Force reports:


Plots and commentary:
The 2nd Pacific Squadron cruising formation is that of the Battle of Tsushima. The formation is compact, with no screening or scouting ships. This is consistent with the intent to pass north unobserved. The British force (dubbed the Far East Fleet) cruising formation has two battleship divisions in line ahead, the armoured cruiser division stationed ahead, two divisions of cruisers in a screen ahead and the destroyer flotilla stationed abeam to starboard of the flagship Duncan. The wide scouting screen is deployed to assist in finding the opposing force.
After the initial sightings, the Far East Fleet alters course to close the range. The 2nd Pacific Squadron deploys to port to gain a downwind position. The Far East Fleet later deploys to starboard to engage the enemy battleline.

Once the battle lines open fire, the 2nd Pacific Squadron reverses direction to the south to engage on parallel courses. Since visibility is good and the torpedos carried by the destroyers are short-ranged, the flotillas remain out of action on the disengaged sides of the battlelines.

This simplified plot omits all but the battleships for clarity. Few hits are obtained until ranges fall below about 8,000 yards. As the range continues to decrease, hits from both primary and secondary batteries shatter the leading battleship divisions of both sides. The four Duncan class are sunk (one blows up) and the four Borodino class are damaged. At this point it was assumed that the fleets would disengage.

This plot shows the entire engagement.


End of game status:
The damage to the best ships of the 2nd Pacific Squadron would seem to make it pointless to continue toward Vladivostok, so the British objective was achieved.


Gunnery logs:


Hit Logs for the primary divisions

1909 Fleet Exercise

This scenario is a fictional British fleet exercise in 1909, designed to examine the idea that dreadnoughts “… were equal to any two and a half battleships at present existing.” [Reference 1]
The Red force, dubbed the ‘Royalist Fleet’, consists of all the currently operational dreadnought battleships and dreadnought armoured cruisers (later renamed battlecruisers) . It sails south from Rosyth to confront the Blue force, dubbed the ‘Parliamentary Fleet’, consisting of twice the number of pre-dreadnought battleships and armoured cruisers. The Red force includes the newest destroyers and the Blue force has a larger number of older destroyers. Both forces have scout cruisers of the latest operational classes.

The guns of the Invincible are penalized for the problems associated with the electrical turret mechanisms. These problems were never resolved, and the equipment was replaced with standard hydraulic gear in 1914. [Reference 2]

The code AI ran the blue side’s forces.

The sea conditions and orders of battle are listed on Page 1 of the Narrative file:


Force reports:


Plots and commentary:
The Red force cruising formation has the Invincible class ahead of the dreadnoughts, the destroyer flotilla stationed on the port bow of the flagship Dreadnought, and the scout cruisers in a line abreast screen ahead. The Blue force cruising formation has two battleship divisions in line ahead, two armoured cruiser divisions stationed ahead to port and starboard, two destroyer flotillas stationed abeam either side of the flagship Lord Nelson, and the scout cruisers in a line abreast screen ahead.
After the initial sightings, both sides deploy to port. The Red force attempts to use its speed advantage to gain a downwind position.

Once the battle lines open fire, the Blue force reverses direction to engage on parallel courses. Blue divisions adopt quarter line formations to allow following ships to be clear of the smoke from those ahead. This can be seen on the plot as parallel blue line segments. The Red heavy ships initially concentrate on the leading Blue battleships, but as the range closes and the Blue armoured cruisers’ fire becomes more effective, the Indomitable’s division shifts fire to the Warrior’s division. The leading Blue ships take significant damage, but the trailing Blue ships are firing undisturbed.

The faster Red force pulls ahead and edges to starboard to cross Blue’s line of advance. The Blue battle line turns away to keep gun arcs open. The scout cruisers fight their own battle between the lines, but the Blue scouts take damage from Red battleship secondary guns.

The Red force, having expended most of its armour piercing shells, and under threat from a visible Blue torpedo launch, turns away and makes smoke to break off the engagement.


End of game status:
The Red force of dreadnought type ships inflicted greater damage than it received, but left almost half of the Blue heavy ships undamaged. For the number of 12 inch shell hits, relatively little critical damage was inflicted. This was due to the defects of the shells, most of which exploded prematurely from the sensitivity of the lyddite filler, or shattered on face-hardened armour when striking at an angle from the perpendicular. It is possible that umpires of an actual fleet exercise would have judged many of the damaged ships to be sunk.
The short range of the torpedoes (3,000 yards maximum) made the destroyers ineffective in this scenario.


Gunnery logs:

References:
1. Fisher, Sir John, “Naval Necessities,” The Fisher Papers, Vol. II, page 149.
2. Roberts, John, “British Battlecruisers 1905-1920,” pages 84-85.